When Gulfstream was a part of Grumman in the 1950s, it produced its first business airplane, the Gulfstream I, in 1958. A turboprop engine was placed on the aircraft’s low wings. For more than 60 years, Gulfstream has been manufacturing highly competitive corporate jets and has maintained its creative approach to business aviation during that time.
For $5.3 billion, General Dynamics acquired Gulfstream in 1999 and has owned it ever since. Now it’s based in Savannah, Georgia, United States. In order to provide its clients with the best possible aviation experience, the company strives to maintain the highest standards. Since Gulfstream I, they have built over 2000 aircraft. G700, G650/650ER, G600, G550, G500, and G280 are their current models. They announced the all-new G400 and G800 as future plans in 2021, based on the proven success of their prior models. However, these models have yet to be manufactured.
The Gulfstream G700 is the company’s most recent flagship in the business jet market. The first Gulfstream aircraft will be delivered in 2022, and the company is currently conducting testing. Within the first year of the program, they flew over 1,100 hours and completed new corporate test procedures. Qatar Airways was named as the launch client for the Gulfstream G700, and they purchased ten of them for charter flights.
The G700 can fly extremely close to the speed of sound (Mach 1), and during tests, the aircraft successfully operated much beyond its maximum operating speed and cruising altitude, flying flawlessly at Mach 0.99 and at 54,000 feet/16,459 meters. This makes it one of the fastest business jets, even while flying at its normal maximum operational speed (Mach 0.925). With a maximum range of 7,500 nm/13,890 km, the G700 also has an ultra-long-range.
Table 1: G700 Specs and Performance-Source: G700 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||56 ft 11 in / 17.35 m||Maximum Fuel||49,400 lb / 22,407 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||8 ft 2 in / 2.49 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.85 / 904 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||2,603 cu ft / 73.71 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.925|
|Exterior Length||109 ft 10 in / 33.48 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||6,250 ft / 1,905 m|
|Overall Wingspan||103 ft / 31.39 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||41,000 ft / 12,497 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||107,600 lb / 48,807 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||51,000 ft / 15,545|
|Maximum Landing Weight||83,500 lb / 37,875 kg||Maximum Range||7,500 nm / 13,890 km|
Rolls-Royce Pearl 700 engines provide G700 with a takeoff thrust rating of 18,250 pounds/81.20 kg each. For the Gulfstream G700 aircraft, Rolls-Royce designed this engine specifically with the goal of fitting as much efficiency and technology into the propulsion system as possible. When compared to the BR725 engine used in the G650/G650ER, it offers 12 percent more thrust and 5 percent more efficiency.
The G700 is equipped with modern avionics that enhances the aircraft’s capabilities for a more comfortable and safer flight. The following are some examples:
- Gulfstream Symmetry Flight Deck
- Predictive Landing Performance System
- Enhanced Flight Vision System with Dual Head-Up Display
Additionally, being a business jet, the G700 is equipped with all the necessary amenities to guarantee a comfortable trip for its passengers. It may have up to five living spaces, each with its own unique seats and 20 extra-wide panoramic oval windows. The G700 interior also has an ultra-gallery, a grand suite with an optional shower, a six-person conference, and a dining table, all while maintaining low cabin height even at high altitudes. Low cabin altitude indicates that the air within the cabin has low-altitude characteristics, which is crucial for passenger comfort, especially on a business aircraft.
Until the first G700 is delivered in 2022, the G650 Family is the most advanced Gulfstream aircraft on the market. G650 and G650ER, which stand for extra range, are the two versions in the family. Gulfstream began planning on this jet in 2005 and made it public in 2008, with the first flight taking place in 2009.
The G650ER has the “farthest fastest business aviation flight” ever in its records and entered service in 2014 after G650. More than 400 aircraft from the G650 family are now in service, and the G650 and its sibling have set 110 world speed records since their introduction. The National Aeronautic Association’s annual aviation prize, the Robert j. Collier Trophy was awarded to G650 for its design in 2014.
G650 takes its power from two Rolls-Royce BR725 engines, each providing a rated takeoff thrust of 16,900 lb / 75.20 kN. Which allowing G650 Family airplanes to achieve high speeds and ultra-long ranges. Incorporating characteristics from the BR700 and Trent families, the BR725 delivers clean, efficient power for a brand-new segment in the world of business aviation.
Table 2: G650 Family Specs and Performance-Source: G650 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||46 ft 10 in / 14.27 m||Maximum Fuel||44,200 lb / 20,049 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||8 ft 2 in / 2.49 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.85 / 904 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||2,138 cu ft / 60.54 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.925|
|Exterior Length||99 ft 9 in / 30.40 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||5,858 ft / 1,786 m|
|Overall Wingspan||99 ft 7 in / 30.35 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||41,000 ft / 12,497 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||99,600 lb / 45,178 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||51,000 ft / 15,545|
|Maximum Landing Weight||83,500 lb / 37,875 kg||Maximum Range||7,000 nm / 12,964 km|
|G650ER Max Fuel||49,400 lb / 22,407 kg||G650ER Maximum Range||
7,500 nm / 13,890 km
The G650 Family was the first Gulfstream jet to employ fly-by-wire, which increased control capabilities, made it easier for pilots to manage, and improved cabin comfort. Wings with a new design are also more make the flight pleasant. The Enhanced Flight Visual System (EFVS) allows approved pilots to land in low-visibility circumstances without using their normal vision, while Gulfstream PlaneView II represents a significant development in aviation avionics.
The G650’s cabin can accommodate up to 16 people and four living spaces.
Gulfstream G600 and G500
With the G500, Gulfstream launched the G600 in 2014 as one of the next-generation aircraft for leisure and business travelers alike. The new G600 and G500 will establish new class-leasing benchmarks in terms of performance. Each of these models represents a major step forward in Gulfstream’s design. Pratt Whitney Canada turbofans power both aircraft, whereas Rolls-Royce engines have been used by Gulfstream since the beginning of time. The G500 is powered by Pratt Whitney PW814GA engines with 15,144 pounds of thrust. With thrust ratings of 15.680 pounds, the PW815GA engines will power the G600. The G500’s engines, according to Gulfstream, will be 10 percent more fuel-efficient than the G450’s.
To provide consumers the best-in-class performance with modern safety features, the two new aircraft maximize speed, wide-cabin comfort, and efficiency. As can be seen from the sizes and specifications of the G600 and G500, these are planes that will not fly as far as the G650ER or G700. But they will still fly at a high speed, have a high range despite being shorter than the G700, and will use the most advanced avionics systems and fuel-efficient engines that Gulfstream will use.
Table 3: G600 Specs and Performance-Source: G600 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||45 ft 2 in / 13.77 m||Maximum Fuel||41,500 lb / 18,824 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||7 ft 7 in / 2.31 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.85 / 904 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||1,884 cu ft / 53.35 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.925|
|Exterior Length||96 ft 1 in / 29.29 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||5,700 ft / 1,737 m|
|Overall Wingspan||94 ft 2 in / 28.70 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||41,000 ft / 12,497 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||94,600 lb / 42,910 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||51,000 ft / 15,545 m|
|Maximum Landing Weight||76,800 lb / 34,836 kg||Maximum Range||6,600 nm / 12,223 km|
Table 4: G500 Specs and Performance-Source: G500 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||41 ft 6 in / 12.65 m||Maximum Fuel||30,250 lb / 13,721 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||7 ft 7 in / 2.31 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.85 / 904 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||1,715 cu ft / 48.56 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.925|
|Exterior Length||91 ft 2 in / 27.79 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||5,300 ft / 1,615 m|
|Overall Wingspan||86 ft 4 in / 26.31 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||43,000 ft / 13,106 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||79,600 lb / 36,106 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||51,000 ft / 15,545 m|
|Maximum Landing Weight||64,350 lb / 29,189 kg||Maximum Range||
5,300 nm / 9,816km
Wide cross-sections characterize the cabins of the G500 and G600, maximizing passenger comfort and aircraft performance. The G500 and G600 each include three living spaces and optional crew rest and can carry up to 19 passengers apiece. Both aircraft include front and aft toilets, as well as a full-size galley that may be found in either the forward or aft sections.
In terms of sophistication, elegance, comfort, and intuitiveness, Gulfstream’s revolutionary SymmetryTM Flight Deck is unmatched in business aviation. Active control sidestick controls (ACSs), integrated touchscreen controls, the next-generation enhanced vision system (EVS), and Honeywell Primus Epic avionics are all examples of cutting-edge technology in use today.
The Gulfstream G500 and G600 are equipped with a third-generation Gulfstream EVS, the Synthetic Vision-Primary Flight Display system, and the Head-Up Display II. Both planes will have a complete three-axis digital fly-by-wire technology, similar to the G650 Family. In fact, Gulfstream builds these aircraft with the most advanced avionics in their class, as can be shown.
In the aviation world, the G550 is one of Gulfstream’s most recognizable models of aircraft. It was the flagship of the company for a long time, and it was debuted in 2003. Even though Gulfstream currently sells more contemporary models, the G550, with its many modifications, continues to be popular with business clients, governments as well as military personnel alike. In 2021, Gulfstream ceased the manufacture of the G550 aircraft.
When G550 was honored in 2003 with the prestigious Robert J. Collier Trophy for excellence in creating a new aircraft while combining measurable safety advantages and far-reaching advancements in aeronautical technology, it was hailed as a triumph. Gulfstream has delivered more than 600 G550s to its customers over the course of roughly two decades. G550 has set 55 world records for flying faster and further during the last two decades. For example, in 2019, it flew from Shanghai to Seattle in 10 hours and 29 minutes.
The Gulfstream PlaneView flying deck was fitted to aircraft, and it was the first Gulfstream has this technology. Modern Gulfstream aircraft types continue to benefit from this technology. Each G550 is equipped with Honeywell Primus 440/660/880 series radars in addition to the Primus Epic Gulfstream PlaneView cockpit system. Additionally, it included an enhanced vision system, a kind of infrared camera that could identify terrain and runway lights in low-light situations.
Table 5: G550 Specs and Performance-Source: G550 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||43 ft 11 in / 13.39 m||Maximum Fuel||41,300 lb / 18,733 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||7 ft / 2.13 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.80 /850 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||1,669 cu ft / 47.26 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.885|
|Exterior Length||96 ft 5 in / 29.39 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||5,910 ft / 1,801 m|
|Overall Wingspan||93 ft 6 in / 28.50 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||41,000 ft / 12,497 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||91,000 lb / 41,277 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||51,000 ft / 15,545 m|
|Maximum Landing Weight||75,300 lb / 34,156 kg||Maximum Range||6,750 nm / 12,501 km|
The G550 is powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710 engines, each with a rated takeoff thrust of 15,385 / 68.40 kN. It can accommodate up to 19 passengers and has up to four living spaces in various combinations.
Along with the business jetliner duty, the G550 has a unique characteristic in that it is widely used by governments and military across the world. It is available in military transport, medevac, and electronic warfare variants.
Gulfstream offers the G280 in the super-midsize business jet class. G280 flew for the first time on December 11, 2009, and went into service. It has an intercontinental range, a Mach 0.80 long-range cruise speed, and outstanding fuel efficiency. Gulfstream added two planes to its fleet by purchasing IAI Astra and Galaxy, allowing it to provide lower-cost mid-size business jets. G280 is based on G200, which was previously known as IAI Galaxy.
Even though G280 is built on G200, it is nearly a completely new business jet in the mid-size market. Gulfstream made significant design modifications to G200 when developing G280. It sports a redesigned wing shape that is comparable to Gulfstream’s flagships, without the leading-edge device and blended winglets, as well as the trademark Gulfstream T-tail. The wing has a 31-degree swept angle and a basic design.
The G280 is powered by two Honeywell HTF7250G engines, each with a rated takeoff thrust of 7,624 lb / 33.90 kN. The engine’s dispatch dependability is 99.96 percent, according to Honeywell. HTF7250G improves G280’s reliability and fuel efficiency, lowering control maintenance and operating costs while letting G280 fly at Mach 0.85.
Future Air Navigation System 1/A+ features are available on the Gulfstream PlaneView280 flying deck. The Enhanced Flight Vision System qualifies it for steep-approach operations, as well as touchdown and rollout (EFVS).
With 100 percent fresh cabin air and a low cabin altitude, the cabin can accommodate up to ten passengers in a variety of configurations. For the G280, Gulfstream created a high-definition entertainment and cabin management system. Low cabin noise levels, 19 big oval windows, and numerous passenger communication choices, including a high-speed Ka-band satellite system, are just a few of the features that make flying more comfortable.
Table 6: G280 Specs and Performance-Source: G280 Spec Sheet
|Cabin Length (excluding baggage)||25 ft 10 in / 7.87 m||Maximum Fuel||14,600 lb / 6,622 kg|
|Finished Cabin Width||6 ft 11 in / 2.11 m||Long Range Cruise Speed||Mach 0.80 /850 km/h|
|Cabin Volume||935 cu ft / 26.48 cu m||Maximum Operating Mach Number||Mach 0.85|
|Exterior Length||66 ft 10 in / 20.37 m||Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW)||4,750 ft / 1,448 m|
|Overall Wingspan||63 ft / 19.20 m||Initial Cruise Altitude||43,000 ft / 13,106 m|
|Maximum Takeoff Weight||39,600 lb / 17,962 kg||Maximum Cruise Altitude||45,000 ft / 13,716 m|
|Maximum Landing Weight||32,700 lb / 14,832 kg||Maximum Range||3,600 nm / 6,667 km|
Airplanes Produced in Past
The first Gulfstream business aircraft, the Grumman Gulfstream I, took to the skies on August 14, 1958. It was also the first business jet constructed specifically for this purpose. It featured two Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops, which were quite dependable. Despite the fact that the APU (auxiliary power unit) was not popular at all, Gulfstream I had one, allowing it to be self-sufficient. A total of 200 Gulfstream I aircraft were built over the course of an 11-year manufacturing cycle, with several remaining in service today.
Table 7: Gulfstream I Specs and Performance-Source: AOPA.org and Gulfstream News
|Grumman Gulfstream I||Powerplant||Rolls-Royce Dart 529-8X|
|Length||63 ft 9 in / 19.431 m||Wingspan||78 ft 6 in / 23.92 m|
|Height||22 ft 9 in / 6.93 m||Seats||8-12|
|Max Takeoff Weight||35,100 lb / 15921.1 kg||Max Cruise Speed||Mach 0.54|
|Max Cruise Altitude||30,000 ft / 9,144 m||Range||2,000 nm / 3,704 km|
On May 4, 1968, the Gulfstream GII became the first business jet to traverse the Atlantic Ocean nonstop. It was Gulfstream’s first business jet, and it still retains the distinctive outside appearance that Gulfstream business planes protect today. The GII is a business jet with a low wing of the modest sweep, a T-tail configuration, and two turbofan engines placed aft. It was designed to outperform its predecessor, the turboprop GI, in terms of speed and range, as well as other operating features.
When working on GII, Gulfstream engineers concentrated on a novel configuration that would allow them to achieve the performance gains they wanted. Performance targets of coast-to-coast range, 0.8 Mach cruising speed, and airport performance equivalent to GI were determined based on their research. To keep intermediate-range travel times comparable with airline timetables, the speed requirement was increased to Mach 0.83 during preliminary design. During the aircraft’s manufacturing cycle, more than 250 GIIs were sold.
Table 8: Gulfstream II Specs and Performance-Source: Gulfstream News and Wikipedia
|Grumman Gulfstream II-B||Powerplant||Rolls-Royce Spey 511-8|
|Length||79 ft 9 in / 24.36 m||Wingspan||77 ft 10 in / 23.72 m (GII-B not GII)|
|Height||24 ft 6 in / 7.47 m||Seats||Up to 16|
|Max Takeoff Weight||68,200 lb / 30,935 kg||Max Speed||Mach 0.85|
|Max Cruise Altitude||45,000 ft / 13,716 m||Range||2,600 nm / 4,815 km|
The Gulfstream GIII had its maiden flight on December 2, 1979, and became the first business jet to fly over both poles in November 1983.
It was created to replace Grumman’s initial large-cabin business jet, the Gulfstream II, as a faster, longer-range version. It features the same Rolls-Royce engines as the GII, but with a redesigned wing, improved avionics, a longer range, and faster speeds and operating weights. Its revised wing design had included winglets and expanded the wingspan. Between 1980 and 1987, over 200 GIIs were sold.
Table 9: Gulfstream III Specs and Performance-Source: Gulfstream News and AOPA
|Grumman Gulfstream III||Powerplant||Rolls-Royce Spey 511-8|
|Length||83 ft 1 in / 25.32 m||Wingspan||77 ft 10 in / 23.72 m|
|Height||24 ft 4 in / 7.41 m||Seats||Up to 19|
|Max Takeoff Weight||69,700 lb / 31,615 kg||Max Cruise Speed||Mach 0.75|
|Balanced field length||5,100 ft / 1.55 km||Range||3,600 nm / 6,667 km|
Upon its first flight on September 19, 1985, the Gulfstream GIV marked a major milestone for business jets with its intercontinental range and cutting-edge cabin technology. Because of its innovative engines and wide yet light wing, the GIV was capable of great range and fast speed. In addition, the GIV flight deck’s pioneering use of digital flight management computers, Gulfstream’s subsequent models have adopted this unique approach to sophisticated flight deck avionics today too.
GIV-SP, which stands for Special Performance, was introduced by Gulfstream in 1993. It had higher takeoff and landing weights. Between 1987 and 2003, 500 GIVs and GIV-SPs were built.
Table 10: Gulfstream IV Specs and Performance-Source: Gulfstream News and Wikipedia
|Grumman Gulfstream IV||Powerplant||Rolls-Royce Tay 611-8|
|Length||88 ft 4 in / 24.36 m||Thrust||13,850 lbf / 61.6 kN|
|Wingspan||77 ft 10 in / 23.72 m||Seats||Up to 19|
|Max Takeoff Weight||73,200 lb / 33,500 kg||Max Cruise Speed||Mach 0.88|
|Service Ceiling||45,000 ft / 13,716 m||Range||4,200 nm / 7,778 km|
GV had its first flight on November 28, 1995. It won the Robert J. Collier Trophy for advanced design and manufacturing techniques. It was targeting the ultralong-range business jet market. GV was a pioneer in ultra-long-range business aircraft, powered by two Rolls-Royce BR710 engines.
In comparison to GIV, GV featured better avionics in the cockpit. On early aircraft, Honeywell’s SPZ 8500 avionics suite is standard, with six 6-by-8-inch CRT displays. Later versions of the aircraft were equipped with the Honeywell Primus Epic-based PlaneView package, which provided better vision.
Table 11: Gulfstream V Specs and Performance-Source: Gulfstream News and AOPA
|Grumman Gulfstream V||Powerplant||Rolls-Royce Spey 511-8|
|Length||96 ft 5 in / 29.38 m||Wingspan||93 ft 6 in / 28.49 m|
|Height||25 ft 10 in / 7.87 m||Passengers||4 Crew and 14 Passengers Typically|
|Max Takeoff Weight||90,500 lb / 41050 kg||Max Speed||Mach 0.885|
|Balanced field length||5,870 ft / 1.79 km||Range||6,500 nm / 12038 km|
IAI Astra SPX was the former designation for the G100, and once Gulfstream purchased it from IAI, it became more popular with the backing of a well-known business jet maker. It is a midsize business jet with two engines. Gulfstream later produced the G150, an upgraded version of the G100. It had an eight-passenger cabin with a wide cabin in its class, as well as excellent speed, fuel efficiency, and cross-country range.
The G150 has a peak speed of Mach 0.85 and can go 3,000 nautical miles / 5,556 kilometers at Mach 0.75. The G150’s production ceased in 2017.
Gulfstream purchased the IAI Galaxy in 2001 and renamed it the Gulfstream G200. It was an excellent business jet in the super-midsize category. Galaxy was an upgraded variant of the IAI Astra (G100), with a bigger, longer, and wider cabin mounted on the standard Astra wing. It had a range of 3,300 nautical miles and was powered by two Pratt & Whitney PW306A engines.
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
Question: Why is Gulfstream so popular?
Answer: It is well-known for its elegant, award-winning business jets with extremely high performance and range. Along with being the manufacturer of the first business airplane, the firm is well-known for its quality, competitiveness, and innovative approach.
Question: What is the range of a Gulfstream?
Answer: Gulfstream airplane ranges vary significantly. However, based on current models, the G280 from the medium category has a range of 3,600 nautical miles / 6,667 km, while the G700 or G650ER has a range of 7,500 nautical miles / 13,890 km. As a result, Gulfstream is now the manufacturer of some of the market’s longest-range business aircraft.
Question: Is Gulfstream a good company?
Answer: Yes, it is one of the world’s top business jet aircraft manufacturers.
Question: Whom is Gulfstream owned by?
Answer: General Dynamics owns Gulfstream in its entirety.
Question: Where is the headquarters of Gulfstream?
Answer: The headquarters of Gulfstream is in Savannah, Georgia, USA.
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G600 and G500:
Bergqvist, P. (2017, August 31). Gulfstream Flies Final G600 Test Aircraft | Flying. Gulfstream Flies Final G600 Test Aircraft | Flying. https://www.flyingmag.com/gulfstream-flies-final-g600-test-aircraft/.
Horne, T. A. (2014, October 15). Gulfstream Intros New G500, G600 – AOPA. Gulfstream intros new G500, G600 – AOPA. https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all-news/2014/october/15/gulfstream-intros-g500-g600.
Pratt Whitney (n.d.). PW800 – Pratt & Whitney. PW800 – Pratt & Whitney. https://www.pwc.ca/en/products-and-services/products/business-aviation-engines/pw800.
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Airplanes Produced in Past:
Bedell, P. A. (2019, July 1). Quick Look: IAI Galaxy/Gulfstream 200 – AOPA. Quick Look: IAI Galaxy/Gulfstream 200 – AOPA. https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all-news/2019/july/pilot/turbine-pilot-quick-look-gulfstream-200.
Tulis, D. (2016, September 28). Gulfstream Dashes G150 From Lineup – AOPA. Gulfstream dashes G150 from lineup – AOPA. https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all-news/2016/september/28/gulfstream-dashes-g150-from-lineup.
Bedell, P. A. (2014, November 5). Quick Look: Astra SPX – AOPA. Quick Look: Astra SPX – AOPA. https://www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all-news/2014/november/pilot/t_ql.
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