Designed to make long, non-stop trips from coast to coast and born as the IAI 1125 Astra SPX aircraft. The Gulfstream G100 is one of the many aircraft that was designed and produced by Israel Aerospace Industries for Gulfstream Aerospace.
The Gulfstream G100 is a mid-size, low-wing private jet that is powered by two aft turbofan engines and can hold a maximum of eight passengers and two crew.
The IAI 1125 Astra was based on the IAI Westwind business jet, built in the 1960s. Development on a newer Westwind started in the late 1970s and bore fruit when the prototype completed its first flight in March of 1984.
The 1125 Astra had its debut flight in 1989 and was powered by two Garrett TFE731-3A-200G turbofans that produced 3,000 lbf (16.46 kN). In 1990, the 1125 Astra received a refresh in the form of modified aerodynamics, improved range, an avionics upgrade, and a revamped interior and was named the 1125 Astra SP.
The 1125 Astra SP was replaced by the newer IAI 1125 Astra SPX, which flew for the first time in 1994 and boasted new Honeywell TFE-731-40R-200G turbofan engines that produced 4,250 lbf (18.90 kN), as well as smaller aerodynamic changes like the addition of winglets.
The IAI 1125 Astra SPX became the Gulfstream G100 after Gulfstream Aerospace took over marketing for the aircraft in 2001. Marketing was not the only aspect in which Gulfstream was involved.
Any aircraft that held the Gulfstream brand name was manufactured in Israel by IAI and was sent to the United States, where the interior would be made and installed according to customer specifications by Gulfstream.
While there were 77 aircraft built on the IAI 1125 Astra SPX platform, the Gulfstream G100 name was only given to 22 of them. The G100 wasn’t a particularly successful aircraft and was succeeded by the large G150. Today, the G100 is used by charter flight companies such as Liberty Jet.
Gulfstream G100: Specifications
The exact specifications for the G100 are as follows:
|Length||55 ft 7 in (16.94 m)|
|Height||18 ft 2 in (5.54 m)|
|Wingspan||52 ft 8 in (16.05 m)|
|Door Height||4 ft 4 in (1.31 m)|
|Exterior Baggage Volume||55 cu.ft (1.56 m³)|
|Exterior Baggage Volume with Extended Fuel Tanks||42 cu.ft (1.19 m³)|
|Length||17 ft 7 in (5.36 m)|
|Height||4 ft 6 in (1.37 m)|
|Width||4 ft 10 in (1.47 m)|
|Volume||375 cu.ft (10.61 m³)|
|Seats (Executive)||7 Pax|
|Seats (Maximum)||8 Pax|
|Internal Baggage Volume||9 cu.ft (0.25 m³)|
|Maximum Take-Off Weight||24,650 lbs (11,181 kg)|
|Maximum Landing Weight||20,700 lbs (9,389 kg)|
|Maximum Zero Fuel||17,000 lbs (7,711 kg)|
|Basic Operating Weight (including 4 crew)||14,365 lbs (6,515 kg)|
|Maximum Payload||2,365 lbs (1,072 kg)|
|Maximum Payload/Full Fuel||920 lbs (417 kg)|
|Useable Fuel||9,365 lbs (4247 kg)|
|Exterior Baggage Load||370 lbs (167 kg)|
|Maximum Range||2910 nm (5389 km)|
|Maximum Range (Four Pax)||2,790 nm (5167 km)|
|Maximum Range (Seats Full)||2,550 nm (4722 km)|
|High-Speed Cruise||0.71 Mach (474 knots / 877 kmph)|
|Normal Cruise||0.68 Mach (459 knots / 850 kmph)|
|Economy Cruise (Long Range)||0.64 Mach (430 knots / 796 kmph)|
|Maximum Operating Mach Number (Mmo)||0.875 Mach (583 knots / 1,079 kmph)|
|Average Fuel Burn||186 gph|
|Balanced Field Length (SL, ISA, MTOW)||6,000 ft (1828 m)|
|Landing Distance (SL, ISA, MLW)||4,362 ft (1329 m)|
|Service Ceiling||45,000 ft (13716 m)|
|Rated Takeoff Thrust Per Engine (SL, ISA, MTOW)||4,250 lbf (18.90 kN)|
|Thrust to Weight Ratio||5:3|
|Rate of Climb (All Engines)||3,400 fpm|
|Rate of Climb (Single-Engine)||493 fpm|
|Flight Deck||Collins Pro Line 4 with Dual Global GNS-XES|
|Auxiliary Power Unit||Honeywell GTCP 36-150W|
Gulfstream G100 Performance and Handling
The G100 is categorized as a mid-size business jet and holds a maximum of eight passengers with two crews. However, it is designed to typically seat seven. The design of the G100 is typical for a private jet. It is a low-wing, T-tail with aft-mounted engines.
The Gulfstream began production of the G100 in 2001, after which it enjoyed a six-year run before finally being discontinued in 2006. During its production run, the G100 wasn’t updated or modified in any way.
The Gulfstream G100 is powered by two Honeywell TFE731-40R geared turbofan engines. These engines are some of the most popular jet engines for business aircraft and are known for their reliability.
Each Honeywell TFE731-40R produces 4,250 lbf (18.90 kN) each for a total of 8,500 lbf (37.8 kN) in takeoff configuration (maximum power). When loaded to its MTOW of 24,650 lbs (11,181 kg), these engines will get the G100 airborne after a takeoff run of 6,000 ft (1,828 m).
Once airborne, the G100 can climb to a service ceiling of 45,000 ft (13,716 m) in just 13 and a half minutes, thanks to its climb rate of 3,400 fpm. Once at altitude, it can be propelled to a maximum Mach number (Mmo) of 0.875 (583 knots).
The G100’s maximum range of 2910 nm (5389 km) was one of the highest when it was introduced in the mid-2000s and still stacks up well against newer jet aircraft.
Modifications and Upgrades
Like every Gulfstream aircraft, the G100’s interior can be customized to whatever specification the customer desires. The design and amenities that the aircraft will have are only limited by cost and cabin space.
In its standard configuration, the G100 offers seating for seven passengers and is outfitted with a galley and a bathroom. If you find the interior to be dated, there are plenty of companies such as Accord Aviation Interiors, that revamp and renovate the entire cabin.
The Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 systems suite is the brains of the G100. This 1994 piece of equipment is highly outdated, even sporting CRT displays, which is why upgrading it would give the G100 a new lease on life.
In 2012, the retrofit update program to replace the older models with the newer Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 system was expanded to include the G100.
The upgrade replaces the CRT displays with LCD ones and includes Rockwell Collins’ Integrated Flight Information System (IFIS), which offers pilots high-resolution charts, enhanced navigation maps, and weather data, including NEXRAD.
This system has an open architecture, which means it can be upgraded further when newer, compatible technology makes itself available.
Where to Find Parts
Even though the Gulfstream G100/IAI 1125 Astra SPX didn’t have stellar sales numbers, the entire 1125 Astra model line had 265 units produced.
This number included the more successful and modified Gulfstream G150, which shared a large number of parts with the G100. Therefore, parts unique to the G100 can be found on marketplaces such as Modstore.aero with little effort.
Another brilliant provider is the Aviation Parts Solution Center (APSC) specializes in providing jet aircraft with parts.
On the other hand, third-party systems that the aircraft used such as the avionics system, and the systems equipment for life support, for example, were not exclusive to the G100.
Most of these systems were popular and used across a variety of aircraft at the time, which is good news for anyone looking to maintain or replace these systems because parts are readily available.
Gulfstream G100 Price
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. This sentiment makes it hard to value private jets because most have been heavily customized to the liking of the initial buyer. However, since there are only 22 Gulfstream G100’s in total, it is easy to cobble together a price range.
The price data on Avbuyer.com offers a wide range of assessors for the G100. According to Aircraft Bluebook, the price (pre-owned) of a G100 manufactured in 2004 is an affordable $2,200,000, while the 2005 model sells for $2,400,000. If $2,200,000 is a bit too steep, Asset Insight values a G100 produced in 2001 at between $1.5 to $1,600,000.
It is hard to gauge what you get for the price that is posted on an advertisement for jet aircraft because the information is not provided unless a serious inquiry is made.
However, GuardianJet.com has offered some insight into the relationship between total time and price. A G100 that was produced in 2003 has a logged a total of 3,079 hours and is priced at $1,695,000.
Owning an aircraft is a costly endeavor, and the initial price of a business jet is just the beginning. Several costs have to be factored in when looking at the overall year-on-year cost of a jet aircraft. The main costs can be separated into two categories: fixed and variable.
As the name suggests, fixed costs stay unchanged throughout a specific period and will have to be paid regardless of the aircraft’s utilization level. According to LibertyJet.com, the yearly fixed cost of a G100 is $408,227.
The table below outlines all the major fixed costs that an owner of a business will incur.
|Fixed Cost||Annual Expenditure ($)|
The Gulfstream G100 requires a bare minimum of two crew members to get the aircraft airborne. It’s commonplace to have a flight attendant help manage the passengers in mid-size business jets, so there will be three crew members most often.
A skilled crew is required to give the passengers the best possible experience and operate the aircraft efficiently and safely. Skills come from experience, and experience costs money, so the higher the crew’s skill level, the more compensation they will require.
Crew Training Costs
A crew doesn’t stop costing money after hiring alone. Pilots need to hold on to their ratings, licenses, and medicals often, which all require training and testing.
It is the industry standard that the employer pay for these, which can include but are not limited to Pilot Proficiency Checks (PPC), Instrument Proficiency Checks (IPC), and even Crew Resource Management (CRM) training.
An aircraft can be parked in one of two ways: it can be tied down on the ramp or parked in a hangar.
The tie-down method is simply renting space on the ramp and securing the aircraft using tie-down cables to prevent it from moving due to high winds.
If the aircraft is being utilized frequently and doesn’t spend too much time on the ground, then it might make sense to simply park it outside for short periods when it isn’t flying.
This method is inexpensive, but there is no protection from the elements like wind, rain, and possibly more damaging weather such as hail.
Additionally, leaving the aircraft out on the ramp with no protection could result in the aircraft being hit by a wayward airport vehicle. Repairs aren’t cheap, and insurance might not cover the damage. So it might just be safer to shell out the cash for a hangar.
For most owners, parking their aircraft in a hangar gives them peace of mind. The aircraft is kept safe from possible damages and the weather. However, hangars can cost quite a bit of money, and while it is never cheap, geography plays a massive role in how much hangar space costs.
For example, in a large airport in a state such as Alabama, hangar space can cost around $30,000. But when near more metropolitan areas, and especially at busy airports where space is a premium, like Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), it can easily cost $120,000.
Liberty Jet estimates that the average hangar space for a G100 costs $34,495.
There are two types of insurance that an aircraft is required to have: liability insurance and hull insurance. The total cost per year for an insurance plan that covers both types for a G100 is $19,562.
Liability insurance is a comprehensive plan that protects you against damages such as injury or bodily harm caused as a result of the operation of the aircraft. Liability insurance is only limited to third parties and doesn’t include coverage for the crew or the aircraft.
Hull insurance is what protects the aircraft. The insurance company will evaluate the aircraft and come up with a dollar amount. If the aircraft is in a serious incident and has to be written off, the insurance company will pay the owner the amount that it was valued at.
Additional types of insurance available to owners of aircraft are hull war insurance and crew insurance. The former protects the aircraft from damages that occur as a result of hijacking, malicious damages, war, and similar risks. Crew insurance provides crews protection against accidents, illness, and loss of license.
According to BWIFLY, the standard liability limit for a standard Gulfstream jet is between $1,000,000 and $500,000,000. The policy offers limited liability coverage of $100,000 to $1,000,000 per passenger.
When an owner opts for an aircraft management service, essential tasks like keeping the aircraft airworthy and well maintained, sourcing crew, and even smaller tasks like refueling and restocking food items are all taken care of.
A comprehensive management solution will set you back around $48,000. However, this value decreases greatly if fewer services are chosen. Check out our guide on the best pilot gear here.
Miscellaneous Fixed Costs
These are unforeseen costs that can pop up over the year. Upgrading avionics software or making minor repairs can occur. So it is good practice to take into account these possibilities when budgeting.
Costs that increase with the usage of the aircraft are called variable costs. Several costs vary with the level of utilization of the aircraft, the main cost being fuel.
The table below outlines all the major variable costs that an owner of a business will incur.
|Variable Cost||Flying 200 Hours/Year ($)|
|Fuel Cost (at $5.00 per gallon)||198,000|
Arguably the highest cost in any aircraft, fuel is also the largest variable cost. The G100 burns an average of 186 gallons per hour, which varies based on factors such as thrust levels, altitude, and overall performance.
Unless an aircraft flies only one single route, calculating the actual fuel cost is extremely difficult, as the fuel cost varies based on the location. Therefore, certain FBO’s and airports will charge much more for the same fuel amount than others. This is especially true over the last two years, as fuel prices have fluctuated because of the pandemic.
In early 2020, a metric tonne or 1,000 kg of Jet-A1 cost $650 but soon dropped to $450 almost a year later. Between then and May of 2021, fuel prices dropped another $250, and the price of a metric tonne of Jet-A1 cost a very unbelievable $200.
As the pandemic dies down and air travel returns to its previous levels, we can expect fuel prices to skyrocket as well, so the budget for the next year will look nothing like the budget for the current year.
Other costs that are associated as a result of flying the aircraft, such as landing fees and crew stipends, are considered to be operating fees. Operating fees are not only based on the number of hours an aircraft flies; it’s dependent on the route and conditions of the flight as well.
Landing fees for an airplane route 90 percent of the time can change if weather requires the aircraft to divert to its alternate. This simple maneuver has caused the operating costs to increase because additional landing fees will have to be paid.
If we have to wait out the weather before heading to the intended destination, the crew could require additional accommodation and a higher stipend for expenses. Much like fuel, geography affects operating costs.
For example, if the destination was in Kentucky, but the alternate was in Texas, where the cost of living is significantly higher, chances are that the budgeted operating costs for that particular trip will have been exceeded.
Diligence when it comes to the maintenance of aircraft because they can be one inspection or an oversight away from being unairworthy. Each hour an aircraft flies directly affects the maintenance cost due to the wear and tear the components go through.
There are intervals at which inspections have to be carried out. The FAA mandates that every aircraft receive an inspection after 100 hours of flying. Similarly, manufacturers have imposed inspections and maintenance orders on their parts, which should be followed to ensure that the aircraft is in good working order.
One of the best examples of manufacturer-required maintenance is an engine overhaul. An engine overhaul has to be completed once an engine reaches a certain TBO (time before overhaul).
During an overhaul, the engine will be completely stripped and inspected for any issues, while older parts that are close to failure will be replaced.
Engine overhauls are very costly and usually occur after a thousand-plus flight hour. But if an aircraft is utilized enough, it does become a cost that has to be taken seriously.
When cost has been incurred for something that isn’t in one of the above categories, it is budgeted for by placing it in the miscellaneous category.
Gulfstream G100: Common Problems
There are two Advisory Circulars (AD), and one Airworthiness Directive (AC) issued to improve the performance and safety of the G100.
The least severe issue is the AD issues by Gulfstream. Required owners of the G100 to update the rigging procedure on the MED microswitch within 12 months of the AD, which was published on January 15, 2016. The cost of this repair was quoted at $510 (6 hours at $85 an hour).
An advisory circular (AC 43-16A ) published in February 2006 highlighted a welding issue in the seatbacks of the Pilot and Co-pilot seats, which required the cross-member to be re-welded due to it cracking.
Finally, the most concerning was the emergency AC that was issued on June 10, 2014. This AC was related to the G100’s Honeywell TFE731-40R engine. It outlined multiple instances of blade separation on 2nd stage low-pressure turbine (LPT2). After further investigation, casting anomalies were detected on or near the root of the blades.
If this is not fixed, the blades can separate during the flight, which could have catastrophic results that can include, but is not limited to, the engine being totaled.
The good news for potential or new G100 owners is that the aircraft must have remedied the above issues to maintain its airworthiness. This means any G100 that has been operational over the last decade has to have had these fixed.
One of the main rivals the G100 has is nearly a decade newer: the Bombardier Learjet 75 Liberty, which started production in 2013.
The Learjet 75 Liberty is the budget-friendly version of the Learjet 75 and costs $9,900,000, brand new. The G100 is much older, but it is also much cheaper.
If you want to have a mid-sized business jet to get you from A to B, then the G100 is the way to go, but the smarter option would be to go for the newer Learjet, which should have a longer lifespan. Check out our Learjet Plane Types and Models Guide here.
When the numbers are stacked against each other, the G100 loses out, but not by much. This is surprising for an aircraft that is nine years older and $7,000,000 less.
The G100 can travel 700 nm more than the Learjet, at only 7 knots slower. The two are also extremely close in operating costs per hour, with the G100 being just $10 more expensive to operate than the Learjet.
The G100 is an excellent buy if a pre-owned aircraft that is in its teens is sufficient. But in the long run, it might be better to pick up one of the new models because of the better equipment and the longevity.
Frequently Asked Questions
Question: What is a Standard Day?
Answer: A standard day is a base that the Internation Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has created to analyze aircraft performance on a level playing field. On a standard day, the temperature will be 15 C or 52 F, the altitude will be mean sea level, and the pressure density will be at 29.92 inches of mercury or 1013.25 millibars.
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Chase, M. (2020, October 1). Bombardier Learjet 75 vs Gulfstream G100. AvBuyer. https://www.avbuyer.com/articles/jets-comparison/bombardier-learjet-75-vs-gulfstream-g100-112907
FAA issues Emergency AD to prevent TFE731 engine turbine blade separations. (2014, June 11). ASN News. https://news.aviation-safety.net/2014/06/11/faa-issues-emergency-ad-to-prevent-tfe731-engine-turbine-blade-separations/
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Gulfstream G100 ownership & operating costs. (2021, May 26). Compare Private Planes. https://compareprivateplanes.com/articles/gulfstream-g100-ownership-operating-costs
How much it costs to own and operate a Gulfstream G100 private jet. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2021, from https://www.libertyjet.com/jet-ownership-costs.aspx?jetType=Gulfstream%20G100
IAI Astra SPX (Gulfstream G100) interior. (2016, August 22). Accord Aviation Interiors – Corporate, Private, and Charter Aircraft Interior Refurbishment. https://www.accordaviation.com/aircraft-interiors-2/iai-astra-spx/
Modstore. (n.d.). Gulfstream G100, G150, Astra SPX, IAI-1125 Navigation + EFB (ATA 34 + 46 ) modifications overview. Retrieved September 18, 2021, from https://www.modstore.aero/aircraft/gulfstream/g100-g150-astra-spx-iai-1125/navigation-plus-efb-ata-34-plus-46
Rockwell Collins Pro Line 21 upgrades extend to Astra SPX, G100, Lear 60. (2012, April 5). Aviation Today. https://www.aviationtoday.com/2012/04/05/rockwell-collins-pro-line-21-upgrades-extend-to-astra-spx-g100-lear-60/
TFE731 Honeywell Aerospace. (n.d.). Retrieved September 18, 2021, from https://web.archive.org/web/20061103212418/http://www.honeywell.com/sites/aero/Turbofans3_C67D99379-5387-BE15-B14A-CEC340B87662_HBAD5694B-4CA1-AFC7-FFF9-80390091EFE5.htm
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