Comparing Cessna’s: The 414 versus 421
With Cessna arguably at the top of the heap regarding the production of half a dozen serious corporate twin-engine piston aircraft, a perennial disagreement exists in the aviation world on which model holds the crown as ‘the best.’ Many regard the 421 Golden Eagle as the monarch, yet the 414 follows closely with a die-hard band of enthusiasts. Let’s look at differences and similarities to try and decide the truth.
What Both Aircraft Offer
Both aircraft are cabin-class, pressurized, low wing, metal, tricycle undercarriage aircraft. Providing six seats as standard, these two aircraft appeal to private owners needing a comfortable long-range aircraft and corporate or charter organizations wanting to shift people over short legs. With the same fuselage, both aircraft are roomy with huge baggage space.
Loved by pilots as excellent IFR platforms, the control forces on the two aircraft are heavy and stable, with a great design requiring only minor trim changes when extending landing gear or flaps. With a roomy cockpit, thoughtful systems layout, and good visibility for pilots, the passengers love them for space, comfort, and low noise levels.
Both designs allow cruising in the mid-teens to low 20s flight levels, achieving above 200 knots cruise on sub-40-liter fuel flows at 65% power. With the pressure differential of the cabins, these aircraft can maintain cabin altitude around 7,000 to 8,00 feet. Let’s look at the specifications of the two aircraft and compare them.
Cessna 414A Chancellor Performance and Handling Specifications
|Cruise Speed (Kts)||Stall Speed (kts) (Flaps up)||82|
|77% @ 24,500 ft||225||Stall Speed (kts) (Flaps down)||71|
|65% @ 18,000 ft||192|
|60% @ 20,000 ft||187||Service Ceiling (ft)||31,350|
|Service Ceiling (ft) Single Eng.||19,850|
|Fuel Consumption (GPH)|
|75%||34||Best sea-level rate-of-climb (fpm)||1,520|
|65%||30||Single-engine rate-of-climb (fpm)||290|
|Take-off Ground Roll (ft)||2,185|
|Max Range (nm)||T/O Dist. over 50-foot obstacle||2,595|
|77% @ 24,500 ft||723|
|55% @ 25,000 ft||1,328||Landing Ground Roll (ft)||1,013|
|Ldg Dist. Over 50-foot obstacle||2,393|
|Est. Endurance (hrs)|
|77% power @ 24,500 ft||5.67||Do Not Exceed Speed (kts)||237|
|65% power @ 18,000 ft||6.50||Max Structural Cruise Speed (kts)||203|
|60% power @ 20,000 ft||7.14|
Cessna 421C Golden Eagle Performance and Handling Specifications
|Cruise Speed (Kts)||Service Ceiling (ft)||30,200|
|75% @ 25,000 ft||220||Service Ceiling (ft) Single Eng.||14,900|
|Fuel Consumption (GPH)||Best sea-level rate-of-climb (fpm)||1940|
|75%||40||Single-engine rate-of-climb (fpm)||350|
|Max Range (nm)||Take-off Ground Roll (ft)||1,786|
|75% @ 25,000 ft||1,200||T/O Dist. over 50-foot obstacle||2,323|
|Do Not Exceed Speed (kts)||256||Landing Ground Roll (ft)||720|
|Ldg Dist. Over 50-foot obstacle||2,293|
|Stall Speed (kts)||74|
Key Specification Comparisons
|Specification||1981 Cessna 414A Chancellor III||1978 Cessna 421
Golden Eagle III
|Average 2021 Price||$280,000||$350,000||414||$70,000|
|Gross Weight||6,750 lbs||7,450 lbs||–||–|
|Empty Weight||4,543 lbs||5,048 lbs||–||–|
|Useful Load||2,207 lbs||2,402 lbs||421||195 lbs|
|Takeoff Distance||2,185 ft||1,786 ft||421||399 ft|
|Climb||1,520 fpm||1,940 fpm||421||245 ft|
|Single Engine Climb||290 fpm||350 fpm||421||60 fpm|
|S/E Service Ceiling||19,850 ft||14,900 ft||414||4,950 ft|
|Cruise||224 kias||241 kias||421||17 kts|
|Fuel Burn||34 gals/hour||42 gals/hr||414||8 gals/hr|
For And Against
An argument laid down by the 414 corner is the so-called ‘troublesome’ geared engines of the 421. Cessna chose the geared, injected, and turbocharged Continental GTSIO-520-D engines for the 421 to achieve the performance required while producing considerably less noise from the lower speed of those 90-inch diameter propellers. Each engine produces 375 horsepower. The ‘troublesome’ label had some foundation in the early days when the engines had a TBO of 1,200 hours and a reputation for cracking cases. However, with beefed-up crankcases supporting a TBO of 1,600 hours, the problem appears mitigated. Yet, the engine does require gentle throttle movements and careful cooling to achieve TBO.
On the other hand, the 414 uses the direct-drive 310 horsepower TSIO-520-NB engine. While the ride may not be as smooth as the 421 or as quiet, the engines are more straightforward and less stressed, although the 520 is still notoriously unforgiving of ham-fisted throttle jockeys.
Cessna 414 advocates point to the enhanced aerodynamics of the 414 wings, allowing a higher 4,950-foot single-engine service ceiling than that of the 421. All that gained with 65 less horsepower per side and 8 gallons less per hour fuel burn. The 421 advocates cite useful load, greater climb, and faster cruise.
Yet, those wings do have an issue with an airworthiness directive affecting the forward wing spar due to fatigue and crack growth in the wings of some aircraft. This AD 2005-12-13 is considerable, requiring eddy current inspection of the forward wing spars, a visual inspection of the aft and auxiliary spars, and a spar strap modification on each wing. However, owners point to the 9,000 hour AD requirement for pre-1978 models and the 15,000-hour requirement on later models. With most 414 currently around 6,000 hours TTAF and having taken 35 to 40 years to accumulate those hours, the inspection and rectification are still a very long way off for the 414A models.
The two aircraft effectively share the same fuel system, fuselage, pressurization, and empennage. The substantial difference is that the 421C performs with 375 horsepower through a heavy geared engine, while the 414A does its thing with 310 horsepower per side via direct drive engines.
The question each prospective owner needs to ask themselves is one of cost versus benefit. Purchase the 421C, and you’ll get a small improvement in cruise and climb performance and a potentially more useful small gain in payload. These gains need to be measured against a minimum US$70,000 – US$100,000 greater purchase price than the 414A, increased fuel costs at 8 gallons per hour, and the higher engine overhaul cost of the GTSIO-520.
If your mission profile requires that extra payload, and you can’t stretch to a turboprop, then you have no option. However, if you wish to fly your family or clients around in the same five-star luxury as the 421C but can manage to do it within the 414A payload, the 414A might be the preferred choice. Mind you, you can’t put a price on bragging rights…
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions
Question: What does service ceiling mean?
Answer: An aircraft’s service ceiling is defined as the height at which the aircraft cannot climb at a rate greater than 100 feet per minute.
Question: What is the meaning of the term TBO?
Answer: TBO means Time Between Overhaul, which is the manufacturers recommended running time, in hours or calendar time, before overhaul.
Question: To what does TTAF refer?
Answer: TTAF stands for Total Time Airframe, which refers to the number of flying hours the airframe has accumulated since new. Thus, it is an indication of age and use.
Question: Aircraft Gross Weight refers to what?
Answer: Gross Weight is the total aircraft weight, including pilots, passengers, fuel, oil, and cargo.
Question: What is an Airworthiness Directive?
Answer: Airworthiness Directives (ADs) are legally enforceable rules issued by a country’s airworthiness regulator to correct an unsafe condition in an aviation product.
Question: What does an ‘eddy current inspection’ mean?
Answer: Eddy current testing is a non-destructive testing method used to inspect materials for flaws and thickness. It uses electromagnetism on conductive materials by generating a changing magnetic field that interacts with the test part and produces eddy currents in the vicinity. A receiver-coil monitors these fields and measures electrical conductivity variations, indicating the presence of possible discontinuities. The changes are shown on a screen and then interpreted to identify defects.
Question: What is a cabin’s ‘pressure differential’?
Answer: A pressurized aircraft cabin maintains a higher pressure in the cabin than that of the atmosphere found outside at altitude. It does this by pressurizing the cabin. Many aircraft can maintain a cabin altitude of 8,000 feet at the cruising altitude of the aircraft. At 8,000 feet, passengers and crew do not require oxygen to breathe, even though the aircraft may be flying at an altitude that would normally require oxygen use. The pressure differential, in pounds per square inch, is the difference between the higher cabin and lower outside pressure.
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